Riot police on the streets of Tottenham, north London, after trouble flared in August 2011
Cities hit by last summer's riots have fallen down a league table of the best places in the world for living conditions, a new study has revealed.
London and Manchester both slumped down an index drawn up by the Economist Intelligence Unit, which ranks cities on issues such as political and social stability, crime, education and access to health care.
Manchester fell nine places to 51, while London dipped two places to 55 out of the 140 countries studied.
Jon Copestake, the survey's editor, said: "UK cities have seen a slight downgrade in liveability due to the mass outbreaks of civil unrest that took place last year.
"Although hosting the Olympics has subsequently provided a definite boost for London's profile, it was already among the world's most vibrant cities, with plenty to see and do, so has had no impact on overall lifestyle."
Elsewhere in the world, the impact of the Arab Spring is still being felt, said the report.
Many cities in the Middle East and North Africa have seen downward revisions of their scores because of civil unrest.
The ongoing civil war in Syria saw the capital Damascus fall furthest as violence intensifies.
Conversely the Chinese cities of Suzhou, Guangzhou and Shanghai have seen some improvement in the ranking as the ongoing growth and investment in the region continues.
Dhaka in Bangladesh was named the least liveable location, while Melbourne overtook Vancouver as the most liveable city.