Controversial "fracking" for shale gas should only take place at least 600 metres down from aquifers used for water supplies, scientists have said.
A new study revealed the process, which uses high-pressure liquid pumped deep underground to split shale rock and release gas, caused fractures running upwards and downwards through the ground of up to 588 metres from their source.
The research, published in the journal Marine and Petroleum Geology, found the chance of a fracture extending more than 600 metres upwards was exceptionally low, and the probability of fractures of more than 350 metres was 1%.
Researchers said the study showed it was "incredibly unlikely" that fracking at depths of 2km to 3km below the surface would lead to the contamination of shallow aquifers which lie above the gas resources.
Shale gas extraction has been controversial in the US because of claims that cancer-causing compounds used in the process have polluted water supplies and that the flammable methane gas itself can pollute drinking water.
But Professor Richard Davies, of Durham University, said it was more likely any contamination came from drilling down through rock containing methane and where the cement or steel well casing may fail, rather than the separate fracking procedure carried out several kilometres down where shale gas forms.
Prof Davies said: "What everyone's interested in is how far can fractures go upwards from that depth - could they go far enough to intersect and contaminate aquifers with fracking fluids or create pathways for methane to contaminate aquifers. There's a lot of debate over contamination of water supplies and that could be the case if they are less than 600 metres above shale gas fracking."
But he said that if the process was taking place 1km to 2km below aquifers it was very unlikely to be the source of pollution.
In most cases fracking occurs around 2km to 3km below the surface, where geological conditions are right for shale gas to form, but in one case in Wyoming it took place at around 600 metres down and there was now evidence of chemicals in the water supply.
Prof Davies said there was "just reason to be cautious" and said regulators should set a distance limit, which should be well in excess of 600 metres when fracking in new areas where there was no existing data on possible fractures.